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Taurin Fox Fox In The Stable Hd.rarl


A number of studies have examined the ability of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide to elicit Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-like subjective effects, as modeled through the THC discrimination paradigm. In the present study, we compared transgenic mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme primarily responsible for anandamide catabolism, to wildtype counterparts in a THC discrimination procedure. THC (5.6 mg/kg) served as a discriminative stimulus in both genotypes, with similar THC dose-response curves between groups. Anandamide fully substituted for THC in FAAH knockout, but not wildtype, mice. Conversely, the metabolically stable anandamide analog O-1812 fully substituted in both groups, but was more potent in knockouts. The CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant dose-dependently attenuated THC generalization in both groups and anandamide substitution in FAAH knockouts. Pharmacological inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary catabolic enzyme for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with JZL184 resulted in full substitution for THC in FAAH knockout mice and nearly full substitution in wildtypes. Quantification of brain endocannabinoid levels revealed expected elevations in anandamide in FAAH knockout mice compared to wildtypes and equipotent dose-dependent elevations in 2-AG following JZL184 administration. Dual inhibition of FAAH and MAGL with JZL195 resulted in roughly equipotent increases in THC-appropriate responding in both groups. While the notable similarity in THC's discriminative stimulus effects across genotype suggests that the increased baseline brain anandamide levels (as seen in FAAH knockout mice) do not alter THC's subjective effects, FAAH knockout mice are more sensitive to the THC-like effects of pharmacologically induced increases in anandamide and MAGL inhibition (e.g., JZL184). Copyright 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.




Taurin Fox Fox In The Stable Hd.rarl


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Study Objectives: Narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by a loss of orexin (hypocretin) signaling, but the physiologic mechanisms that result in poor maintenance of wakefulness and fragmented sleep remain unknown. Conventional scoring of sleep cannot reveal much about the process of transitioning between states or the variations within states. We developed an EEG spectral analysis technique to determine whether the state instability in a mouse model of narcolepsy reflects abnormal sleep or wake states, faster movements between states, or abnormal transitions between states. Design: We analyzed sleep recordings in orexin knockout (OXKO) mice and wild type (WT) littermates using a state space analysis technique. This non-categorical approach allows quantitative and unbiased examination of sleep/wake states and state transitions. Measurements and Results: OXKO mice spent less time in deep, delta-rich NREM sleep and in active, theta-rich wake and instead spent more time near the transition zones between states. In addition, while in the midst of what should be stable wake, OXKO mice initiated rapid changes into NREM sleep with high velocities normally seen only in transition regions. Consequently, state transitions were much more frequent and rapid even though the EEG progressions during state transitions were normal. Conclusions: State space analysis enables visualization of the boundaries between sleep and wake and shows that narcoleptic mice have less distinct and more labile states of sleep and wakefulness. These observations provide new perspectives on the abnormal state dynamics resulting from disrupted orexin signaling and highlight the usefulness of state space analysis in understanding narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. Citation: Diniz Behn CG; Klerman EB; Mochizuki T; Lin S; Scammell TE. Abnormal sleep/wake dynamics in orexin knockout mice. SLEEP 2010;33(3):297-306. PMID:20337187


The Fragile X syndrome, a common form of mental retardation in humans, is caused by silencing the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene leading to the absence of the encoded fragile X mental retardation protein 1 (FMRP). We describe morphological and behavioral abnormalities for both affected humans and Fmr1 knockout mice, a putative animal model for the human Fragile X syndrome. The aim of the present study was to identify possible neurochemical abnormalities in Fmr1 knockout mice, with particular focus on neurotransmission. Significant region-specific differences of basal neurotransmitter and metabolite levels were found between wildtype and Fmr1 knockout animals, predominantly in juveniles (post-natal days 28 to 31). Adults (postnatal days 209 to 221) showed only few abnormalities as compared with the wildtype. In juvenile knockout mice, aspartate and taurine were especially increased in cortical regions, striatum, hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem. In addition, juveniles showed an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the caudal cortex, hippocampus, and brainstem. We detected very few differences in monoamine turnover in both age stages. The results presented here provide the first evidence that lack of FMRP expression in FMRP knockout mice is accompanied by age-dependent, region-specific alterations in neurotransmission.


The Fragile X syndrome, a common form of mental retardation in humans, originates from the loss of expression of the Fragile X mental retardation gene leading to the absence of the encoded Fragile X mental retardation protein 1 (FMRP). A broad pattern of morphological and behavioral abnormalities is well described for affected humans as well as Fmr1 knock-out mice, a transgenic animal model for the human Fragile X syndrome. In the present study, we examined neurochemical differences between female Fmr1 knock-out and wildtype mice with particular focus on neurotransmission. Significant age- and region-specific differences of basal tissue neurotransmitter and metabolite levels measured by high performance liquid chromatography were found. Those differences were more numerous in juvenile animals (postnatal day (PND) 28-31) compared to adults (postnatal day 209-221). In juvenile female knock-out mice, especially aspartate and taurine were increased in cortical regions, striatum, cerebellum, and brainstem. Furthermore, compared to the wildtype animals, the juvenile knock-out mice displayed an increased level of neuronal inhibition in the hippocampus and brainstem reflected by decreased ratios of (aspartate + glutamate)/(taurine + GABA), as well as an increased dopamine (DA) turnover in cortical regions, striatum, and hippocampus. These results provide the first evidence that the lack of FMRP expression in female Fmr1 knock-out mice is accompanied by age-dependent, region-specific alterations in brain amino acids, and monoamine turnover, which might be related to the reported synaptical and behavioural alterations in these animals.


Narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by a loss of orexin (hypocretin) signaling, but the physiologic mechanisms that result in poor maintenance of wakefulness and fragmented sleep remain unknown. Conventional scoring of sleep cannot reveal much about the process of transitioning between states or the variations within states. We developed an EEG spectral analysis technique to determine whether the state instability in a mouse model of narcolepsy reflects abnormal sleep or wake states, faster movements between states, or abnormal transitions between states. We analyzed sleep recordings in orexin knockout (OXKO) mice and wild type (WT) littermates using a state space analysis technique. This non-categorical approach allows quantitative and unbiased examination of sleep/wake states and state transitions. OXKO mice spent less time in deep, delta-rich NREM sleep and in active, theta-rich wake and instead spent more time near the transition zones between states. In addition, while in the midst of what should be stable wake, OXKO mice initiated rapid changes into NREM sleep with high velocities normally seen only in transition regions. Consequently, state transitions were much more frequent and rapid even though the EEG progressions during state transitions were normal. State space analysis enables visualization of the boundaries between sleep and wake and shows that narcoleptic mice have less distinct and more labile states of sleep and wakefulness. These observations provide new perspectives on the abnormal state dynamics resulting from disrupted orexin signaling and highlight the usefulness of state space analysis in understanding narcolepsy and other sleep disorders.


Pyruvate plays a critical role in the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and it is the center product for the synthesis of amino acids, carbohydrates and fatty acids. Pyruvate transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane appears to be essential in anabolic and catabolic intermediary metabolism. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) mounted in the inner membrane of mitochondria serves as the channel to facilitate pyruvate permeating. In mammals, the MPC is formed by two paralogous subunits, MPC1 and MPC2. It is known that complete ablation of MPC2 in mice causes death on the 11th or 12th day of the embryonic period. However, MPC1 deletion and the knowledge of gene function in vivo are lacking. Using the new technology of gene manipulation known as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) systems, we gained stable MPC1 gene heterozygous mutation mice models, and the heterozygous mutations could be stably maintained in their offsprings. Only one line with homozygous 27 bases deletion in the first exon was established, but no offsprings could be obtained after four months of mating experiments, indicating infertility of the mice with such homozygous deletion. The other line of MPC1 knockout (KO) mice was only heterozygous, which mutated in the first exon with a terminator shortly afterwards. These two lines of MPC1 KO mice showed lower fertility and significantly higher bodyweight in the females. We concluded that heterozygous MPC1 KO weakens fertility and influences the metabolism of glucose and fatty acid and bodyweight in mice. PMID:27835892 350c69d7ab


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